Beef Liver: The first ingredient, in our limited ingredient holistic formula is beef liver. For safety, the beef liver has been dehydrated slowly in small batches, at low temperatures, over 10 hours. This not only ensures that any and all harmful bacteria is eradicated, but that the nutritional profile is kept intact as well. Beef liver contains taurine. Taurine is normally found in the raw diet in beef liver. Small dogs will receive 250 mg of taurine per serving and large dogs 500mg per serving. Taurine is healthy for the heart and can help prevent DCM. Taurine helps some of the most crucial systems function properly. It is absolutely critical to cardiac function, eye health and immune system function. Lack of taurine can cause serious eye and heart problems. Taurine deficiencies in dog food, began with the invention of the extruder which required more starch and less meat and organs; organs which contained vital amounts of taurine. This last ingredient is particularly heart wrenching, as it is the one ingredient which would have saved our beloved Holly and for which her kibble provided her no relief. Taurine or amino sulfonic acid is vital to both heart and eye health. Older dogs and especially larger older dogs, are particularly susceptible to taurine deficiencies. Beef liver is also a good source of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, calcium, beta-carotene, iron, copper, niacin, zinc, and phosphorus. Organs are a nutrient rich, high protein, low fat addition to any diet. This beef liver is organic, non-gmo and grass fed.