Taurine: The ninth ingredient, in our limited ingredient holistic formula is taurine. Taurine is normally found in the raw diet in beef liver. Small dogs will receive 250 mg of taurine per serving and large dogs 500mg per serving. Taurine is healthy for the heart and can help prevent DCM. Taurine helps some of the most crucial systems function properly. It is absolutely critical to cardiac function, eye health and immune system function. Lack of taurine can cause serious eye and heart problems. Taurine deficiencies in dog food, began with the invention of the extruder which required more starch and less meat and organs; organs which contained vital amounts of taurine. This last ingredient is particularly heart wrenching, as it is the one ingredient which would have saved our beloved Holly and for which her kibble provided her no relief. Taurine or amino sulfonic acid is vital to both heart and eye health. Older dogs and especially larger older dogs, are particularly susceptible to taurine deficiencies.